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EDUCATION RESEARCH

 
     

Education, Poverty, and Pro Poor Policy


1

Research on Trained and Untrained teachers in Northern Ghana: What Value Addition does Volunteerism bring in terms of Systemic Change to Education Quality particularly in relation to Volunteer Teachers and Support Agents under the Tackling Education Needs Inclusively (TENI/VSO) Project (2013):

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Associates for Change was contracted by Voluntary Services Overseas (VSO) to conduct a one year research programme across the three northern regions of Ghana under the Tackling Educational Needs Inclusively (TENI) Project dubbed "The Second Learning Question". The study focused more on the impact voluntarism in the teaching field is making across the school and district levels in northern Ghana and further assessed the value addition volunteerism brings in terms of systemic change to education quality particularly in relation to volunteer teachers and support agents". The study also looked at how effective the services of volunteers have been (international, national and local community volunteers) in improving quality education and inclusive practices at basic public school level in Ghana (compared to trained permanent teachers, community based and external volunteers). Findings from the study showed that the key motivation for volunteers to join the teaching profession was the desire to help educate their siblings because of the trained teacher shortage in local community schools and the potential of volunteering as preparation to enter teaching as a career. The study also found that the greatest additional value volunteer teachers were making in the primary schools in northern Ghana was their ability to provide a regular and dependable body of teachers to prevent schools from being closed down owing to the absence of other teachers. The research recommends a professional development and training plan for "untrained teachers" who are serving in public basic schools across the country, including "untrained teachers" such as NYEP teachers, NSS and CSVs so as to improve their instructional training in literacy, numeracy and child-friendly approaches to instruction.

 
     
2

Research on The Quality and Inclusivity of Basic Education across Ghana's three northern regions: a look at change, learning effectiveness and efficiency under the Tackling Education Needs Inclusively (TENI/VSO) Project (2012 -2013):

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Associates for Change has completed a one year research programme across the three northern regions of Ghana which explored the promoting and inhibiting factors to quality education. The study focused on teacher preparedness, classroom methods, language of instruction, and learning context in 54 schools and 86 classrooms across the three northern regions. The study also explored the child readiness and community demand factors which shape and influence the quality of education in Ghana and the key drivers of change that promote or inhibit the achievement of inclusive education, with emphasis on the education needs of girls and children with disability. Classroom observations were conducted in over 86 schools in which a well-tested instrument was used by researchers and developed to assess the levels of competency of the teacher across a range of criteria. The study found that despite significant resources being placed into the public education system by central government and donor agencies in order to improve direct teaching and learning processes, instructional practice, and increase access to relevant materials and teaching learning aids, these were not always adopted or sustained in schools which were poorly managed (e.g. NALAP, EQUALL, etc). The research recommends that behaviour and attitudinal change processes should be investigated: teacher location to the communities they serve, the affiliation they have with the children and people they serve, the influence that professional development (pre and in-service training) has on their commitment levels, their professional status as teachers and the influences that school leadership and the culture of teaching has on the change in their behaviour.

 
     
3

Documentation of Parliament's Work to Promote Access to Quality Basic Education for All Children, Particularly Girls and Children from Excluded Social Groups. STAR Ghana Parliamentary Legacy Document for the Education Committee. (June to July, 2012):

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The purpose of the Fifth Parliament Education Select Committee Legacy Document was to record the Education Select Committees' achievements, completed work, challenges and recommendations in relation to improving access to quality basic education, particularly for girls and children from excluded social groups. This legacy document records several of their key achievements over the last four years and also highlights some of the major gaps in relation to basic education for the most marginalised in the education sector. The document serves as a hand over report from members of the outgoing Parliamentary Select Committee on Education and is a key resource for Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) and other stakeholders working in the sector seeking to increase their engagement with Parliament. The legacy document was also designed as a tool to help document the action taken and key policies developed as part of the institution building process of parliament and as a vital part of strengthening their role as a key oversight institution in Ghana and as a representative body for constituency groups and CSOs.

 
     
4

The USAID Education Sector Coordination Strategy Retreat:

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The Ministry of Education and USAID sponsored Education Partner Retreat at Akosombo, Ghana (April 6 and 7th, 2010) was designed and facilitated by AfC staff and consultants. The retreat was to openly consult on key areas to improve aid effectiveness within the education sector and looked specifically at the sectors': coordination, ownership, alignment, harmonization, managing results and mutual accountability. The retreat's objective was to take key steps to improve vertical and horizontal coordination within Ghana's education sector, across various ministries and departments outside of education and among DPs working at national and decentralized levels. The programme was also designed to formulate and agree on a set of working principles to achieve better coordination, ownership and alignment within the education sector. The retreat enabled development partners to review the key strengths and weaknesses related to better coordination and harmonization. A process tool to identify donor and civil society comparative advantage was used to assess development partner work and involved a feedback mechanism. Consultation was held on prioritization across the basic and post basic educational levels using the Education Strategic Plan (ESP) and Annual Education Operational Plan (AESOP). Discussions were held on ways to strengthen monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems and capacity building processes within the education sector focused on results and performance. The retreat report outlines the key findings from this strategic planning exercise.

 
     
5

Assessment of the Implementation of the National Accelerated Literacy Programme (NALAP) (2010):

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AfC in collaboration with USAID's EQUALL programme conducted an assessment of the National Accelerated Literacy Programme (NALAP) which was a collaborative programme between the Ministry of Education and USAID. The study primarily investigated the effectiveness of NALAP in relation to: its relevance, accuracy, and coverage of the materials; the appropriateness, applicability and coverage of the training for both education managers and teachers; and the impact of the NALAP public advocacy campaign. The NALAP implementation study took a critical look at the NALAP design, development, implementation and support to assess what was working, what gaps existed, and what strategies might be best employed to address the gaps, both in the long and short term. The study was conducted across 11 language groupings, in two phases and involved over 32 researchers. AfC used survey instruments and conducted in-depth interviews with the district directors, teachers and community members in 13 districts across the seven regions of Ghana implementing NALAP.

 
     
6

The Status of French Language Teaching and Learning across Ghana's Public Education System. (2010):

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AfC conducted a study of French language education in Ghana which explores its scale and spread. The study also identified the factors that promote or impede the teaching of French at all levels of education from primary to tertiary levels. The study also assessed the overall effectiveness of the French language promotion policy and French language teacher education provision in Ghana. The study employed a mix of qualitative and quantitative approaches, using secondary data from the Ministry of Education, enrolment data from the Education Management Information System (EMIS) and West African Examination Council (WAEC) as well as quantitative data collected through questionnaires by the Regional French Education Centres (CREFs) and in-depth focal group discussions with key stakeholders including French teachers, students, teacher trainers and the Directors of Education at regional and district levels. The Northern and Ashanti Regions were selected for field work along with the pilot study which was conducted in the Greater Accra Region.

 
     
7

A Social Appraisal of the Education Strategic Plan for Ghana by Dr. Leslie Casely-Hayford, unpublished, November 2004. Associates for Change Working Document #1

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Despite positive efforts within Ghana's educational sector over the last five to ten years, educational trends remain modest, particularly when considering the net enrolment rates across the country. Through statistical and situational analysis of the socio-economic and socio-cultural context as well as an in depth discussion of the ongoing gender disparities within the system, this paper elucidates a number of factors that continue to pose challenges to participation in and provision of quality education across Ghana . It is argued that in order for the poor and marginalized to increasingly get a fair share of the national educational budget, the Ghana Government's Education Strategic Plan will need to sustain and increase efforts at resource targeting particularly at the district level.

 
     
8
Reaching Underserved Populations with Basic Education in Deprived Areas of Ghana : Emerging Good Practices. CARE International Ghana ; Research Team: Leslie Casely-Hayford et al. (funded by USAID/Ghana) January 2003
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Ghana 's efforts to attain Education for All in the coming five to ten years will largely depend on her commitment to support educational services for 50% of the children currently out of school in northern Ghana (mainly girls). Extensive research in a variety of countries has revealed that formalized systems, which work on fixed timetables, a loaded curriculum, and depend mostly on trained teachers, are often not performing in rural environments with respect to providing basic literacy, numeracy and other skills/competencies that are relevant to the local environment.

 
     
 
This study investigates complementary education approaches that would help promote access to and increase quality of educational programs for under-served populations in Ghana , particularly those in the north of the country. Complementary education approaches are proving to be not only effective but also essential in assisting children, who would otherwise not be reached by the formal system, escape the cycle of illiteracy and secure better future for the next generation of children.
 
     
9
Reaching Educational Quality Goals in Sub Saharan Africa : A look at Complementary Education Systems by Dr. Leslie Casely-Hayford. Presented to the Oxford International Conference on Education and Development, "The State of Education : Quantity, Quality and Outcomes" at Oxford , United Kingdom , 9-11 September 2003.
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Over a decade after the Education for All Conference (EFA) in Jomtien and now, reaching the mid term point since the 2000 EFA Conference in Senegal, Governments in sub Saharan Africa are far from achieving the goals set, despite higher investments of GNP and increases in donor assistance to the Education Sector. This paper explores issues of context, poverty and cultural practices, which continue to limit the attainment of global goals for universal basic education, particularly in Africa . The paper also considers complementary educational approaches, which have improved basic literacy, access and quality standards in deprived areas in India , Bangladesh , Mali , and Ghana . The study highlights approaches for reaching "under-served children" in rural deprived areas and argues for support of complementary education systems in order to close the widening access and quality gap between rural Africa and the rest of the world.

 
     
10

Education Sector Review (ESR): Final Team Synthesis Report. ESR Team: Professor Kwasi Ansu-Kyeremeh, Dr Leslie Casely-Hayford, Professor Djangmah and Dr Nti. Submitted to the Ministry of Education, Accra , Ghana , October 2002.

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This report presents the findings and outcomes of the Education Sector Review (ESR), an analysis of the state of education in Ghana commissioned by the Ministry of Education and Donor Community. The ESR was aimed at assisting the Ministry of Education (MOE) and Ghana Educational Services (GES) design a comprehensive programme for improving the education system based on an up to date analysis of the sector. The ESR set out to assess the performance of Ghana 's education delivery system in the context of changes in the sector since the 1987 educational reforms, the FCUBE implementation, the Education for All initiatives (EFA), and the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS). The findings of the ESR assist the education sector to identify key challenges and present recommendations to enable the Ministry of Education and its development partners to plan towards a sector wide approach.

 
     
 

The report reviews the thematic areas investigated as part of the overall study including: a) Educational Outcomes and Linkages b) Management, c) Finance, d) Community/School Relations, e) General Education, Gender and the Disadvantaged.

 
     
11

Education Sector Review: Consultancy Area Report on General Education, Gender and the Disadvantaged by Dr. Leslie Casely-Hayford. Education Sector Review Team Member. Submitted to the Ministry of Education, Accra , Ghana , October 2002.

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This Consultancy Area Report presents seven major themes, which were examined as part of the 2002 Education Sector Review (ESR) in Ghana . These include poverty and educational attainment, gender, early child hood education, special needs education, school health, HIV/AIDS and child rights. The report reviews the issues of inequality from a regional, gender and socio-economic perspective. It also examines the programme needs, challenges and key recommendations for addressing cross cutting issues such as special needs education, health, HIV/AIDS and child rights. The findings are based on interviews, stakeholder meetings and a documentation review within the various sub sectors. The report reveals that improving equity is inseparable from improving quality of education in Ghana . A much stronger pro poor emphasis is needed in directing resources within the Education sector towards deprived areas, girl's education, special needs and early childhood education.

 
     
  The first section examines the issues related to poverty and the disadvantaged; the second section considers key gender issues in education while the third section examines early childhood education, school health and HIV/AIDS while the final section contains an analysis of child rights and protection within the education sector in Ghana .  
     
12
A Situational Analysis of Early Childhood Education in Ghana By Dr. Leslie Casely-Hayford, prepared for the Ministry of Education as part of the Education Sector Review, Ghana , August 2002.
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The educational needs of young children are by far one of the Government of Ghana's most pressing challenges, particularly within a context of high rates of poverty, infant and child mortality and female illiteracy. This situational analysis provides an up-to-date review of the Early Childhood Education sub sector, highlighting the most urgent challenges facing policymakers and practitioners in enhancing the learning paths of children, particularly those between the ages of 4-6 years within a formal education context. Analysis is based on a literature review covering international and national studies on early childhood education, fieldwork and interviews with key stakeholders involved in the sub-sector. The paper attempts to focus on early childhood development and learning and considers the need for a holistic and multi-sectoral approach to programming.

 
     
13. a)
The Social Impact of Poverty on Educational Attainment: A National Perspective Part I by Dr. Leslie Casely Hayford; Published in the Social Policy Journal of the Centre for Social Policy Studies Vol 2. No. 2 Faculty of Social Studies, University of Ghana , Legon July, 2002.
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This two-part paper develops a framework for exploring the issues of child poverty and education for policy interventions as Ghana and its partners strive toward equitable educational development. The first paper begins with discussion of the definitions, indicators and impact of poverty on the educational attainment by highlighting the regional, gendered and socio-economic inequalities throughout the country; the paper demonstrates that high levels of student underachievement, dropout and low levels of educational performance are linked to high levels of poverty across the country, and that closing the enrolment and gender gap within these areas will require special intervention strategies which take account of the context. It recommends that improving educational quality is a key step towards transforming human resources and reducing poverty within deprived rural areas of Ghana and suggests that alternative/complementary educational approaches be incorporated alongside the formal education system in areas of endemic poverty.

 
     
13. b )
The Social Impact of Poverty on Educational Attainment: Lessons from the North, Part II by Dr. Leslie Casely-Hayford prepared for the 5 th International Conference on "Children and Poverty: the Impact of Economic, Social and Political Choices" May 23-25, Montreal Canada , 2002.
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This article explores the social dimensions of child poverty and educational attainment based on fieldwork conducted in Northern Ghana between 1996 and 2000. It probes deeper into the community, family and child perspectives concerning education, revealing a consistent pattern of poor educational quality, underdevelopment and intergenerational poverty in rural communities across the savannah regions of Ghana . The paper explores some of the approaches parents from resource-deprived areas of Ghana use to make educational investment decisions, the reasons why poor quality education persists and the lower educational achievement levels among rural children compared to their urban counterparts. The research employs an in-depth case study approach to investigate the challenges facing children from deprived rural communities in order to inform policy and the educational change processes. The research presents the challenges of ensuring formal education acts as a vehicle for human development in areas where there are high levels of poverty.

 
     
14
Education for All in Ghana : A Cultural Inquiry By Dr Leslie Casely-Hayford. Presented at the British Education Research Association Conference at the University of Sussex , United Kingdom , September 1999
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This paper explores the current status of EFA in Ghana, first on a macroscopic level through analysis of the progress made towards three specific EFA objectives, secondly through an in-depth ethnographic case study in the northern region of Ghana, and thirdly, through discussion of the implications of these findings on policy making and external agency programming in Ghana. The paper argues a deeper understanding of the process of cultural change through ethnographic approaches to research are needed in order to address the complex issues of educational performance and school effectiveness in rural Ghana taking into consideration the perspectives of poor rural stakeholders. The basic learning needs of young children and their opportunity for educational participation is shaped by culture, context and community values. These elements should be fully integrated and strongly considered for any Education for All (EFA) strategy to succeed in meeting the basic learning needs for all children. Ethnographic research is therefore be essential in order to illuminate the child, family and community perspectives of the socio-cultural barriers and possibilities faced in meeting the goals of EFA.

 
     
Complimentary Education  
1

Complementary Basic Education Programme, Government of Ghana and DFID supported (Feb, 2013 to November 2018)

Associates for Change in collaboration with Crown Agents UK are currently managing a five year Complementary Basic Education Programme. AfC is managing the research, monitoring and evaluation technical support and oversight which entail providing educational advisory services to the Ghana Education Service. AfC has a Senior Education Advisor, an M&E Manager and M&E Officer providing technical advisory support to the Government of Ghana and 10 Non-Governmental organisations implementing the Complementary Basic Education Programme. AfC also sees to all the monitoring framework and curriculum material development and assessment processes which are part of the project. Some of the activities AfC engaged in include:

  • Providing technical advisory support to the Government of Ghana and several Non-Governmental organisations implementing the Complementary Basic Education Programme.
  • Oversight to the all the material development and assessment processes which are part of the project.
  • Oversight to the Research and monitoring, evaluation component to the project.

http://www.cbe.ges.gov.gh/

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2

UNICEF Out of School Children Study, Ghana Country Report, UNICEF Ghana (2011):
AfC was contracted to conduct a comprehensive, and analytical review of bottlenecks and barriers related to Out of School Children (OOSC) in Ghana. The assignment involved the collection and review of relevant literature on OOSC in Ghana and elsewhere using the global OOSC methodological framework developed by the UN Institute of Statistics and UNICEF. The study involved an extensive literature review, analysed and synthesised existing evidence concerning barriers/bottlenecks for OOSC and effective policies/strategies to address the barriers/bottlenecks to children's access, retention and completion of basic schooling in Ghana. The study involved an investigation into the socio cultural, economic, supply and institutional constraints, barriers and policies to improve the conditions for out of school children within the Ghanaian context. http://www.uis.unesco.org/Library/Documents/out-of-school-children-ghana-country-study-2012-en.pdf

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3

Reaching Underserved Populations with Complementary Education: Lessons from Ghana's State and Non State Sector by Leslie Casely-Hayford and Ash Hartwell
This article explores the impact efficiency and effectiveness of non state provision of basic education for children and their families in rural deprived areas and the potential impact non state provision can make in achieving basic literacy outcomes for children mainstreamed into the public education system. The article explores how NGO programmes of this nature complement the efforts of state systems by providing children who would have otherwise not received primary education a chance at formal education. The article is based on findings from an impact evaluation which explores the outcomes of the School for Life programme in northern Ghana. (see Journal of Development in Practice, June 2010)

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4

The Leap to Literacy and Life Change in Northern Ghana: The School for Life Impact Assessment
School for Life (SfL) is a non formal literacy program for children between the ages of 8 to 14. The program was designed to assist children that have not entered the formal education system due to their social and economic barriers to education in Northern Ghana. The program is a flexible school model with learning hours in the afternoon when children are free from their home and farming responsibilities; the program is facilitated by a youth from the community who is literate in the mother tongue language. The programme started in 1995 and has reached over 80,000 children in northern Ghana.

The School for Life Impact Assessment (IA) was designed to be a high level strategic exercise focusing on replication and mainstreaming possibilities of SfL. The main focus of the study was aimed at providing an assessment of the impact of the SfL programme on the participants, families, communities, Facilitators and schools which have received SfL support. There are three reports presented here: the short executive summary of the impact assessment (the SFL pamphlet); the second document is the abridged version of the main report (abridged version) and the final report which contains the detailed report of findings.

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Girls Education and Gender Equity  
1

Closing the Gender Gap in Ghana: Generating the Evidence Base for 'What works' in Gender Equality in Education. (2011). Commissioned by DFID:

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AfC assisted and the Girls' Education Unit of the Ghana Education Service conduct an extensive evidence based study on 'what works' in gender equality in Ghana's basic education sector. A comprehensive nationwide 'gender intervention map' and data base was produced which details all girls' education projects undertaken in Ghana since 2000. The mapping exercise attempts to capture all the girls' education projects, key strategies and lessons learned in implementing the projects during this period. The primary objective of the gender gap project was to provide the Girls' Education Unit and interested stakeholders with the evidence to produce a costed, credible national action plan to improve girls' enrolment and completion of secondary school. The evidence consists of:

  • a 'gender intervention map' for Ghana, in which the experience of previous and existing intervention programmes are recorded and analysed;
  • The gender mapping and sector analysis of girls education in Ghana
  • The Gender and Education Bibliography
  • 'What Works for Gender Equality in Ghana' analytical report.
 
     
2

Strategies to Promote Girls' Education: a look at their impact and effectiveness; Commissioned by SNV, IBIS, UNICEF and WFP (2009):

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AfC assisted the SNV and IBIS team finalize the research report for publication by undertaking a meta analysis of fieldwork findings, policy context and trends in girls' education across Ghana. The report was targeted at the Government of Ghana, civil society agencies, donors and other development partners. A briefing paper based on the findings for senior policy level was also prepared and AfC conducted two dissemination events in northern and southern Ghana.

 
     
3

A Situational Analysis of Gender Issues in Education: From Literate Girls to Educated Women by Dr. Leslie Casely-Hayford and the Education Sector Review Gender Task Team, prepared for the Ministry of Education Accra, Ghana, July 2002

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"No race or people can rise half slave, half free. The surest way to keep a people down is to educate the men and neglect the women. If you educate a man you simply educate an individual, but if you educate a woman you educate a family." (Dr. Aggrey, Ghanaian Educationalist). This report was compiled as part of the "General Education, Gender and the Disadvantaged Consultancy Area", a sub component of the Education Sector Review (ESR). The report examines the gender equity scenario in Ghana from Kindergarten to Tertiary Level; the types, experiences and results of interventions and best practices; strategic recommendations for the way forward; cost and capacity issues; existing MOE/GES documents on gender policies and evaluations and strategic plans were reviewed.

 
     
 

The study presents key gender issues in educational development in Ghana and enumerates important interventions being spearheaded by government and civil society organizations. The study provides key recommendations for District, NGO and community based initiatives to support female education in Ghana.

 
     
4
"How the Poor Get Poorer" An Exploration into the Participation, Quality and Needs of Female Teachers in Rural Deprived Areas of Ghana by Dr. Leslie Casely-Hayford and Sarah Wilson. Submitted to the Girls Education Unit, Ministry of Education, Ghana . Accra : March 2001.
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The following study is an investigation into the needs of female teachers in remote rural areas of Ghana and the reasons for the poor supply of females in these areas. It highlights the needs of female teachers in order for the Ghana Education Service (GES) and more precisely, the Girls' Education Unit to design strategies to attract and retain more female teachers in deprived rural areas of the country. The study takes a qualitative approach exploring the perceptions of the primary stakeholders in six districts across three geographic zones with the lowest percentage of female teachers involved in basic education: it also involved interviews with the district education staff, female teachers living in deprived rural areas, girls and community members.

 
     

Special Education Needs

 
     
1

A Situational Analysis of Special Needs Education in Ghana By Dr. Leslie Casely-Hayford, Education Sector Review Team, for the Ministry of Education, July 2002

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This study examines the effectiveness of the Ministry of Education's Special Education programme and other Non Governmental agency initiatives for Children with special needs through analysis of the current services and existing needs of institutions and communities across Ghana . It reviews key areas of special education such as policy targets, goals and guidelines, the MOE's programme for mainstreaming and integrating children with special needs into the formal education system. It also reviews the current status of teacher education, the provision and effectiveness of curriculum and teaching/learning materials; the role of MOE and the GES in the execution of the special education programming at the district level, and the cost effectiveness and quality of services provided for children with special needs which has been provided. The study indicates the need for implementation of a systematic programme for inclusive education, preparing stakeholders working in the school system to assist children with special needs integrate into the mainstream system.

 
     
2
A Review of Good Practice in ICT and Special Educational Needs for Africa by Dr. Leslie Casely-Hayford and Paul Lynch, an IMFUNDO Knowledge Bank Initiative, September 2003.
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This study investigates how good practice and experience from global use of Assistive Technology (AT) can be shared with African governments and people working in the special education sector. It focuses on the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to support Special Educational Needs in Africa with particular reference to special schools, teacher education and inclusive educational programming. The main disability groups considered in this report are the hearing impaired, vision impaired and children with general learning disabilities.
 
     
 
For a link to this and other DFID publications visit www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/
 
     
3

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based Solutions for Special Education Needs (SEN) in Ghana: Strategic Preparation for the Use of ICT to Support the Delivery of the Ghana Education Services' Special Education Division's (SpED), Core Objectives. By Dr. Leslie Casely-Hayford and Paul Lynch, an IMFUNDO Knowledge Bank Initiative, DFID, October 2003.

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In Ghana, between 20-25% of children in regular schools experience some type of impairment which is often not readily discernible but can affect the child's performance resulting in failure or dropout (SpED) in formal education, and approximately 6% of the Ghanaian population have a mild to severe disability. Yet less than 4% of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports' (MOEYS) budget supports special needs education for children.

 
     
 
This report investigates how the innovative practice and experiences from global use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can be utilized in the areas of teacher training, inclusive school settings and special needs schools in Ghana . Prepared for the Ghana Education Service (GES) Special Education Division (SpED), the report provides an overview of how best to use ICT to support the Special Education sector in Ghana . It also provides an in- depth analysis of the special education challenges across the country, and presents concrete proposals and recommendations for using ICT to support the delivery of the Ghana Education Services' Special Education Division's (SpED) core objectives on a long term basis.
 
     
 

For a link to this and other DFID publications visit www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/

 
     
     
     
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